The sources of information for research paper can be divided into many different ways. 20 A. Cavallo and R. Rigobon, 2016, The Billion Prices Project: Using online prices for measurement and research, Journal of Economic Perspectives 30(2):151-178. In particular, federal statistical agencies have been the predominant source for national-level collection of economic, employment, and demographic data about individuals and businesses. Find information and research on Victoria's tourism industry as well as tools and support to help you start and grow your tourism business in Victoria. 1-49 in The Human Shape of Work: Studies in the Sociology of Occupations (P.L. Therefore, locating information on these sectors requires research in a broader set of sources. Individual-level data from household surveys are also released to the public in aggregate to protect privacy and confidentiality. 29 F.C. The following types of naturally occurring data—that is, data that would exist in digital form whether or not someone sought them—provide key examples of analytical opportunities for researchers. How to Identify Appropriate Sources of Information for a Business Analysis. Print and Internet sources vary widely in their authority, accuracy, objectivity, currency, and coverage. The CPS is one of the primary sources for tracking self-employment activity. Ethnographic research continues to provide grounded understandings of the changing nature of work in the 21st century. The ACS has collected data about computers and Internet use annually since 2013. Modules and supplements are periodically added to business surveys to track changes in technology. A highlight of the BDS is that it permits the tracking of business formation and business failure at the firm level. Barley, 2012, The lure of the virtual, Organization Science 23(5):1485-1504. Digital data are now being created at vastly greater quantities than ever before. Overall, they estimate that 45 percent of work activities are currently automatable, although this number would rise to 58 percent if natural-language processing were to reach the median level of human performance. Bernard Marr is a best-selling author, keynote speaker, strategic performance consultant and analytics, KPI and Big Data guru. Integration of data tracking changes in technology at the firm level with matched employer-employee data also has the potential to permit study of the impact of changing technology on the workers caught up in such changes. After adding the variables to the standard forecasting model, Choi and Varian found their Google Trends model outperformed other models of the Department of Labor’s initial claims data. Work is also under way to use social media to track economic trends. Analysis of these and other data mined from the Web present opportunities for close monitoring and dynamic analysis of the labor market. Such sources include: the internet, newspapers, journals, transcripts from radio or TV programmes, leaflets, photographs and other artefacts (man-made objects). The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office tracks all patents in the United States, including information on the firms and inventors for the patents as well as the nature of the patents. 52 Council of Economic Advisors, 2016, Economic Report of the President, p. 249, Zabusky and S.R. A wealth of information (including from some of the categories identified above) is held or generated by the private sector, such as corporations with large employment numbers, employment services, and others whose business practices would shed light on how technology is changing the U.S. and global economies and workforce. Examples include studies of finite element analysis and other mathematical simulation tools in automobile engineering,35 the work and careers of financial analysts on Wall Street,36 the work of technicians in a variety of settings,37,38 and the work of personal service workers39 and contract workers.40,41 These and other ethnographies offer considerable fodder for developing a more macro-oriented understanding of the variety of trends characteristic of changes in the nature of work and the structure of the workforce. 51 McKinsey Global Institute, 2015, Four Fundamentals of Work-place Automation. The Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics (LEHD) project at the Census Bureau has created a longitudinal employer-employee matched data infrastructure for studying labor market dynamics from both the worker and business perspective. Tabulations at these levels are further classified by worker characteristics, such as demographics and education, and firm characteristics, such as firm size and firm age. Other gaps include information about computer capital broken down at the firm and occupational levels; longitudinal information about skill changes over time by occupational field; information about organizational practices; and data on the diffusion and effectiveness of various educational practices for preparing individuals for work. 6 A.B. Existing data do not allow for a definitive interpretation. In general, these data could be uniquely useful to researchers and policy makers since they can be collected and searched in real time, at high granularity, and reveal unanticipated trends. Best sources of candidates in the North American staffing industry 2018 Most effective lead sources of U.S. staffing firms 2020 U.S. employers … Additional challenges to using these data sets include the redefinition of certain classifiers or categories over time, which can make it challenging to track longitudinal trends, or the irregular updating of subsections of data sets (such as with O*NET); in the committee’s judgment, some data set (whether based on O*NET or otherwise) that enables longitudinal analysis of shifting job definitions and skills requirements for occupational fields would be beneficial. Information sources are often classified as physical (print, analog) versus online (electronic, digital,) text versus audio-video and book versus journal. Not all information is reliable or true, nor will all information be suitable for your paper or project. The world’s largest archive of weather data. Similar complementary models could be developed to identify technology trends and advances, changing employment opportunities or skills demands for different occupational fields, and potential correlations between these trends. New York Times Searchable, indexed archive of news articles going back to 1851. Following a discovery or event, information flows through different publications over time.,,,,,,,,,, EVALUATING JOB SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AUTOMATION,,, 3 Effects of Information Technology on Productivity, Employment, and Incomes, Appendix B: Workshop Agenda and Panelist Biographies, Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff. Gold, 1964, In the basement: The apartment building janitor, pp. © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. Overall, the median number of internal data sources used to support decision-making is five, so most companies are dealing with multiple sources. Directly accessible data for 170 industries from 50 countries and over 1 Mio. This site is the first stage and acts as a portal to all sorts of amazing information on everything from climate to crime. For the purposes of this study, while current surveys and administrative data provide a wealth of information for tracking workforce trends and the changing nature of firms and the workplace, this information does not provide much contextual information about the evolving workplace. Although they constructed the model to be simpler than the one used by the National Association of Realtors, by using real-time data, they were able to make predictions more accurately than the experts.17, Federal statistical agencies have begun to use big data sources in their evaluations. Facebook Graph Although much of the information on users’ Facebook profile is private, a lot isn’t – Facebook provide the Graph API as a way of querying the huge amount of information that its users are happy to share with the world (or can’t hide because they haven’t worked out how the privacy settings work). If displaced, the outcomes in terms of employment and earnings can be tracked. 4 K.G. Walker and W.H. As noted above, household surveys such as the CPS, ACS, and the Decennial Census are useful sources for characterizing the changing occupational mix of the U.S. workforce over time. Most censuses take place at 10 year intervals, so data from this and other published sources may be out-of-date at the time the researcher wants to make use of the statistics. Gapminder Compilation of data from sources including the World Health Organization and World Bank covering economic, medical and social statistics from around the world. Berger, ed. Hoffman, 1960, Automation and the Worker, Henry Holt and Company, New York. All of these categories of information present both advantages and challenges. Additional information, such as retail or online purchasing trends (tracked via bar-code scanners in brick-and-mortar stores or product numbers in online purchases), search queries (inputs into online search engines), social media content, and related data, may contain useful evidence of technology diffusion, economic change, and employment or business trends. List of credible sources for research. First, valuable data held by the private sector are not generally available to researchers; if they were, steps would likely be needed to protect proprietary business information. The capabilities of these top technologies were compared to the “anchoring tasks” provided as benchmarks for the O*NET ability-level rating system in relevant skills categories. This underscores the need for careful and timely evaluation and monitoring of trends in technology and the workforce, and for an improved understanding of the relationship between the two. Information as a product must be used in some way (… 43 M. Goos, A. Manning, and A. Salomons, 2009, Job polarization in Europe, American Economic Review 99(2):58-63. The information source horizon metaphor is meant to invoke an imaged horizon (a landscape) in which information sources are nearer or further on this horizon depending on the accessibility of the source and the likelihood that it will be used. 28 C.R. 15 H. Choi and H. Varian, 2012, Predicting the present with Google Trends, Economic Record 88(s1):2-9. terms. This evaluation considered only the technological capability of completing the associated work tasks, to the exclusion of other economic, organizational, and social considerations. The definition of "information" that will be used in this entry is that of Michael Buckland (1991), which regards information as objects. Such data range from “naturally occurring” data, created and saved as a byproduct of digital transactions, to detailed case studies of a work process or environment, obtained by methodical, scientific observation of employees at work. Bernard and T.C. The new job-to-job flow statistics show there has been a decline in the pace of such transitions, posing concerns about workers getting caught up in the changing nature of work. There is rich potential to expand upon this research, in particular by refining or augmenting these approaches; identifying strategies for testing the accuracy of such predictions; and incorporating other factors, such as societal acceptance of a given technology, that contribute to automation of particular work functions and jobs. However, people rarely expected to differentiate between secondary and tertiary sources. Research projects with participants from the academic community, the patent office, and the statistical agencies are integrating patent and other related data on innovation to longitudinal business data (i.e., the microdata underlying the BDS) and the longitudinal, matched employer-employee data (i.e., the LEHD data infrastructure).7 Such data integration permits tracking of the outcomes of innovative activity in unprecedented ways as well as tracking of the careers of innovators. See the website for the Panel on Improving Federal Statistics for Policy and Social Science Research Using Multiple Data Sources and State-of-the-Art Estimation Methods, at Data on the changing occupational mix and the skill requirements of these occupations are a vital source for tracking these changes. provide insight into the underlying causes of or meaning behind such trends—even if they also yield accurate predictions.24 More qualitative or in-depth examination of workforce and technology trends, along with hypothesis-driven research grounded in established scientific theory, will be needed to unravel the bigger picture. Revised on December 3, 2020. Primary sources are direct, firsthand sources of information or data. 4. Users: The end user can give the best information about what do they like the most about the system and what is it that is very difficult to stand it. 38 S.E. SOURCE: Council of Economic Advisors (CEA), 2016, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. National Climatic Data Center Huge collection of environmental, meteorological and climate data sets from the US National Climatic Data Center. An information industry is an industry that captures value from data or knowledge. The use of microscale social science methods, such as interview, field work, and other ethnographic approaches, can help researchers bridge these critical gaps by testing conclusions from quantitative data and lead to new hypotheses and study, survey, or experiment design. While such evaluations of susceptibility of work to automation are relatively new and not without limitations, they are provocative and present systematic approaches for addressing the question of what. Abraham, J. Haltiwanger, K. Sandusky, and J.R. Spletzer, 2013, Exploring differences in employment between household and establishment data, Journal of Labor Economics 31(2,part 2):S129-S172. The Occupational Employment Statistics survey, administered cooperatively by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and state workforce agencies, collects information about employees at nonfarm establishments. Media products such as television programs and movies, published books and periodicals would constitute probably among the most accepted part of what information goods can be. As discussed in Chapter 4, job-to-job flows have been a critical way for young workers to build careers and also show how workers impacted by changing technologies have adapted by changing employers. The Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act of 2002 (44 U.S.C. 49 Elliott, 2014, Anticipating a Luddite revival. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Here are some common information source types with descriptions of how current their information usually is, what kind of information is contained in them, and where to find them. data complement the household-based surveys by providing data on wages by detailed occupation and location as reported by employers. Amazon Web Services public datasets Huge resource of public data, including the 1000 Genome Project, an attempt to build the most comprehensive database of human genetic information and NASA’s database of satellite imagery of Earth. Survey enrollment is conducted over the phone, with data subsequently collected each month via computer-assisted telephone interviewing or self-reporting via touch-tone phone entry, fax, Web collection, or electronic data interchange.2 The CES provides a monthly picture of wage and salary earnings and employment dynamics for the U.S. private, nonfarm sector, to supplement the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), a comprehensive data set (or “universe file”) generated from administrative data on all private, nonfarm establishments in the United States. This differs between subjects but in general: 1. It is noteworthy that the 2016 Economic Report of the President52 addressed the question of automation of work. Elliott, 2014, Anticipating a Luddite revival, Issues in Science and Technology 30(3):27-36; C.B. 32 J. Haas, 1977, Learning real feelings: A study of high steel ironworkers’ reactions to fear and danger, Sociology of Work and Occupations 4(4):147-170. Learn more about: cookie policy. Along with patent citation data, integration with matched employer-employee data enables the study of the networks and clustering activity of innovation in unprecedented ways. Related household-based sources for tracking the evolution of the workforce include the long form of the Decennial Census through 2000 and the more recent American Community Survey (ACS), both collected by the Census Bureau. Frey and M.A. 25 Types of Information Industry posted by John Spacey, August 19, 2019. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Core administrative data are housed at the Internal Revenue Service and Social Security Administration, both of which have statistical arms that provide important measures of economic activity; much of these data are also provided to the Census Bureau. Much as advances in analytical methods have enabled new products, services, and tools for research and business (with implications for the workforce), such methods also present new opportunities for identifying and understanding changes in the labor economy. It offers evaluations of what is known, notes open questions to be addressed, and identifies promising research pathways moving forward. It provides invaluable information about the sectors where R&D and innovative activity are concentrated, which is disproportionately in manufacturing. The future of economic statistics is likely to involve partnerships between the public and private sector. Further integration of these and other alternative data sources on workers and firms has great promise for enabling future research, as discussed in research theme 8 in Chapter 6. In addition, the knowledge provided by O*NET about which occupational competencies are required for success in a given occupation is not accompanied by information about how to teach or attain these competencies. Furthermore, researchers must query these organizations individually and may encounter data gaps. The. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? 13 Burning Glass Technologies, 2016, “About Burning Glass Technologies,”, accessed April 2016. As mentioned in the previous section, these methods may also fail to reveal causality. 42 D.H. Autor, F. Levy, and R.J. Murnane, 2003, The skill content of recent technological change: An empirical exploration, Quarterly Journal of Economics 118(4):1279-1333. Moving forward, the research community would be well served by data collection designed to support longitudinal tracking and analysis of workforce trends and the role of advances in IT. 44 D.H. Autor and D. Dorn, 2013, The growth of low-skill service jobs and the polarization of the US labor market, American Economic Review 103(5):1553-1597. Direct measures of changing technology and innovation stem from survey and administrative sources. Tourism industry resources. IT enables processing and integration of large-scale administrative data with traditional survey data in unprecedented ways. To understand the changing nature of the labor market, it is also critical to track workforce and employer dynamics and transitions. Changes in the demand for different types of skills are a critical aspect of the changing nature of work. You can divide it on the basis of where to find the information, how to find the information and what kind of information to seek. The Current Establishment Survey (CES), often called the “payroll survey,” is the core source of key national, industry, and regional indicators of earnings and employment for the United States. Guest, 1952, The Man on the Assembly Line, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. Topsy Free, comprehensive social media data is hard to come by – after all their data is what generates profits for the big players (Facebook, Twitter etc) so they don’t want to give it away. Such household data does not provide much detail about the specific nature of technological innovation, but it is important for quantifying the penetration of the use of IT across the population. Factors that must be taken into account during aggregation and interpretation of these data include the existence of multiple postings for the same position, delayed updates or removal of advertisements for filled positions, a lack of information about jobs not posted on publicly searchable sites, and other incomplete or inaccurate information. Overall, Web-based and private-sector data present great potential for enabling new insights into the changing nature of work and workforce trends. 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